Endometrial cancer originates in the lining of the uterus

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Endometrial cancer originates in the lining of the uterus. Since the development and spread of endometrial cancer largely depends on the presence of estrogen in the body, hormone therapy is normally given after surgery to reduce the possibility of recurrent cancer in the future.

Endometrial cancer

According to MedlinePlus, age is a risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer. Most cases of the disease affect women who are between the ages of 60 and 70, with cases affecting someone younger than 40 being extremely rare. Symptoms include abnormal or excessively heavy bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, or whitish discharge from the vagina that occurs after menopause.

Endometrial cancer treatment

When the tumor is caught in time, surgery is an effective method of treatment, removing all ovaries. In other cases, chemotherapy or radiation are both effective alternative measures, consisting of the demand for drugs or high levels of targeted radiation used to destroy cancer cells.

Hormone therapy

According to the American Cancer Society, the goal of hormone therapy in endometrial cancer treatment is to reduce the body’s level of estrogen to reduce the chances that cancer will retrain in the future, or slow the spread of cancer cells existing until they can be effectively addressed through other methods of treatment.

Hormone therapy Drugs

According to the ACS, the main drugs used in hormone therapy are progestogens. These drugs work to reduce circulating levels of estrogen in the body, slowing the development of cancer cells. Another commonly used drug is tamoxifen, which is a drug often used to fight breast cancer, although it can also work to prevent estrogen from stimulating the growth of cancer cells. A third alternative prescription are drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, which force the ovaries to produce less estrogen. Side effects of these medications include menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes including, weight gain, vaginal dryness and possibly decreased bone density.

Hormonal therapy methods

In addition to prescribing medications to change the body’s hormonal balance, it may be necessary to take other more drastic measures. According to the ACS, additional options for the fight against endometrial cancer with hormone therapy include either removing the ovaries surgically or using radiotherapy aimed at making the ovaries disabled by removing the body’s main source of estrogen production. p>

Experimental treatment

New classes of drugs are being studied all the time for their potential benefit in hormone therapy for endometrial cancer. According to the ACS, a class of drugs with a potential is called aromatase inhibitors. These drugs act to prevent the conversion of other substances to estrogens, further reducing the natural levels of the body. Side effects include muscle aches and hot flashes.

Health advice: Breast cancer, Tamoxifen and hair loss

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Breast cancer, Tamoxifen and hair loss – “A woman’s solution!”

About what was supposed to be a fine day at the end of spring two years ago, it soon turned into tragedy for two women (Helen and Denise) in their early 40s when both were diagnosed with – invasive
Hormone Hormone – positive for the cancer.They receptor were very similar, these two women. Both were happily married. Both had three children and both processes waiting for time down full. They were two brilliant and ambitious women who, without realizing it, entered into a bond in that paralyzing spring afternoon.

Both have undergone several lymph node translocations and a lumpectomy. Be the effects of 6 weeks of radiotherapy immediately. Neither had to endure the effects of exhausting chemotherapy. Both were determined to beat this monster that had invaded their bodies. Both bound as close friends and when the feelings of despair began to creep into their thoughts they were each other as confidants to lift their spirits. They were together, never alerting their families of their inner fears that the tumor would return.

With the conclusion of their treatments both resumed their daily routine and tried to regain a sense of normalcy back into their lives. Both have been prescribed Tamoxifen for the next five years. Tamoxifen is very effective in preventing recurrence in invasive hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Unknown to Denise, it was not yet finished with the challenges that this demon called cancer has forced her to face.

Although, Tamoxifen has some side effects it is relatively safe and thousands and thousands of women take every day without having any side effects at all. Helen barely noticed changes during treatment with the drug. He returned to work part – time at first, but immediately resumed his role as wife, mother and full-time employee. You could almost believe you ever underwent cancer treatments and she was once again shining with signs of good health.

Denise on the other hand is not equally equally good. He immediately realized that his hair was starting to fall. Sometimes an average of 200 lines a day. After two weeks of being on Tamoxifen and experiencing this rapid hair loss it was seriously to stop using it. Radiotherapy, which was used to save her life, left her tired and listless. Tamoxifen which was used to prevent cancer from returning, was thinning hair and above all destroying her self-esteem.

He studied the prescription drug Rogaine, but he found the chemical name (Minoxidil) had side effects as well. Rogaine was also very expensive and time consuming. He had foreseen the removal of the ovary. His reasoning is that it was positive that his family was complete. He immediately stated that he did not think he wanted to undergo multiple surgeries.

He then examined FDA’s approved Aromasin an aromatase inhibitor. Aromasin was given to women with early-stage disease, but who had already suffered 2 to 3 years of Tamoxifen. The next inhibitor that appeared in the Femara state. Although, FDA approved for early-stage breast cancer that needed to have completed 5 years of Tamoxifen. The third inhibitor was called Ariminex. This is given to patients with early-stage disease and immediately after surgery. After discussing with her doctor, she immediately switched from Tamoxifen to Ariminex.

Hair loss was the main reason Denise passed from Tamoxifene to Ariminex. He had no other side effects of this drug, but as a vanity he wanted her not to become bald. After taking Ariminex for just under four months he realized that she had exchanged a cosmetic effect for another side that was physical. Denise was still experiencing slight hair loss, but now she was suffering from excruciating joint pain.

Your doctor explained that by taking Tamoxifen, your hair loss continues as it may have been caused by the drug giving you an elbow in menopause. Women who enter menopause, due to lower estrogen sometimes experience hair loss. He also explained that everyone’s tolerance was different for these drugs and could prescribe Femara for her instead of Ariminex. During this time Denise was taking tramadol with prolonged release of joint pain and felt exhausted and defeated. She was not yet able to get back to work, even though it had been almost a year since she was the first diagnosi of breast cancer.

Financially Denise and her family were barely making ends meet. Without his much needed salary, the bills accumulated. His marriage, once vibrant, was the suffering and the talk of their separation was only silenced by the tears in the eyes of their children. In a year everything that she and her family had worked for appeared ready to collapse!

Denise was still thinking about whether she should start taking Femara or stop taking all medications altogether.

That morning he had received a phone call that would change his life. It was Helen. His confidant through the worst of times had called to know how he was doing. It was not long before Denise came out of emotions. Through the tears and laughter Elena and Denise were once again reunited, and Denise was no longer in this battle, apparently alone.

Helen, who has been and continues to work in the organic and natural foods sector, is saddened that Denise had not confided in her precedent on her struggle. She was happy with the thought that she was able to help her friend in need.

After hearing the story of Denise it was clear to Helen that the only side effect that Tamoxifen’s short Helen assumption had was hair loss. Because of these two simple four words the letter (hair loss) the past year for Denise and her family had turned into a roller coaster of downward spiraling.

After a lengthy in-depth discussion with Helen, Denise decided to take her advice and start taking Shen minute. Shen Minute is an herbal product that has literally changed Denise’s life. He interrupted Ariminex, and immediately felt the difference with his joints.She was then able to stop the use of tramadol for joint pain, because she no longer suffered pain. She chose not to start taking Femara, but instead decided to resume taking Tamoxifen, since others then lost her hair there were no other side effects.

Like Helen who explained to Denise, the Shen Minute Advanced Formula for Women was actually extending her stage hair growth, thus reducing the amount of hairs that were resting and relapse. This herbal supplement had no side effects and the results were found within a month. It seemed like a simple solution, but Denise had suffered miserably for almost a year, taking drugs that lead to side effects, without realizing that there are natural products that can be taken with conventional drugs.

Helen introduction of Denise to Shen minute literally changed life. It is doing very well on Tamoxifen without side effects. Her hair loss is at an acceptable normal rate and she has returned to work full time. She is no longer on any pain medication and her marriage is getting stronger and again on the right track.

Although, this / cancer hair loss story gets a little complicated, it’s insightful. If Denise had known Shen minute when she started Tamoxifene she would have saved herself months of suffering, with severe pain in her joints due to Ariminex. Although Ariminex aromatase inhibitor is free side effect for most of its patients prescribed, Denise’s body for reasons what ever was able to tolerate this drug.

The bottom line is that there is no help for those who have lost unwanted hair. Shen minute features natural products, consisting of capsules, topical formula and even herbal shampoos that can help hair loss in both men and women. If you or someone you know suffers from hair loss, even if it is through the genetics Shen minute it might just be your answer to thinning hair.


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Tamoxifen in the medical therapy of gynecomastia

Gynecomastia (GM) is a condition of volume increase of the mammary gland in the male, which can recognize different clinical conditions 1:
– situations dependent on a hyperplasia of the glandular tissue (so-called “true” GM);
– situations where the increase in volume depends on the accumulation of adipose tissue (“fake” GM or lipomastia);
– mixed hyperplasia, with increase in different proportions of both glandular and adipose components.

The most frequent situation is pubertal or post – puberal GM where – usually without identifiable hormonal anomalies – we are witnessing the development of a GM that tends to regress to acceptable levels during 2 – 3 years after puberation . These situations, also defined as “physiological” GM, are attributed to a high sensitivity of the mammary tissues to the stimulation of the hormones that appear during the pubertal process.

In clinical practice we can identify situations (28 – 40% depending on the series) where the problem is in temporal relation with the intake of drugs (see table ). For this reason – especially in adults where the problem is recently onset – the recent pharmacological anamnesis is particularly important 2.

The situations resulting from systemic hormone alterations are the minority but the initial clinical evaluation can not disregard the research of the levels of estradiol, total testosterone, LH, FSH, prolactin and HCG in order to identify hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia or very rare cases of secretive estrogen neoplasms or paraneoplastic syndromes of HCG.

In most cases where there are no significant hormonal changes and it is not possible to trace any drug, the “idiopathic” GM condition is attributed to hypersensitivity of the breast tissue to circulating estrogens. In these cases it can lead to persistent situations, sometimes – especially in adolescents – with a strong emotional impact: this is generally an aesthetic problem or, less frequently, a painful disorder, for which there are few alternatives to the surgical solution 3. However, the demand for a “non-surgical” approach that can achieve the most durable results with well-tolerated and convenient products is common.

Since the pathogenesis is attributed to an excessive response of estrogen receptors, attention has been focused on drugs with antiestrogenic effect whereas dopamine – agonist drugs have proved effective only in cases (the minority) with documented hyperprolactinemia 4 – 5. Experiences with synthetic anti-estrogens used in the 70’s (clomiphene and cyclophenyl) 6 to 9 had provided contradictory results for which the experimentation focused mainly on tamoxifen, a very widely used molecule in hormonal therapy of breast cancer.

The tamoxifene (Tam) is a synthetic non-steroidal molecule belonging to the so-called SERM (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators), drugs able to behave as receptor antagonists in certain tissues and agonists in other organs. Tam plays an antagonist role on breast tissue and bone agonist receptors while it is a partial agonist on the endometrium 10. This drug for its antiestrogen effect on the breast tissue, has been evaluated in numerous studies carried out in patients with puberal GM, but also in patients suffering from GM secondary to drugs, especially the cases resulting from treatment with antiandrogens in the androgenic block for adenocarcinoma prostate.

Overall, the published studies provide data on 869 patients treated with Tam: most of the results come from studies in which the drug was used: – in idiopathic GM, in males without provable systemic hormone diseases; – in antiandrogenic therapy in patients with prostatic carcinoma.

In idiopathic GM, the most evaluated dose was 20 mg / day in one or two 11 – 15 administrations. Minor data are 10 or 40 mg. The duration of the studies was variable: for periods of 3 to 6 months therapy the result, assessed clinically or with ultrasound, was judged favorable in 70 – 80% of cases. The treatment effect is inevitably transitory and – in clinical practice – it is usual to discontinue the therapy after 6 – 8 months followed by a waiting period to monitor the evolution of the problem. In cases of recurrence, additional treatment periods are often reproposed, but data on the subject deriving from randomized clinical trials are completely lacking. Tam was generally well tolerated even in monga duration 16 – 17; the adverse effects reported were mild and only in 6 cases led to discontinuation of treatment. There are no reports of serious adverse events, particularly liver damage or thrombotic episodes. The use of Tam induced the predictable hormonal responses according to its receptor action profile and did not lead to alterations of the hemocoagulative parameters or other risk factors 18 – 19. The effectiveness was higher than that of danazol, compared to which the Tam is also better tolerated 20. The efficacy of Tam was slightly lower than that of raloxifene in the only comparison study 21.

The efficacy of Tam is clinically more evident and longer lasting in cases of GM secondary to drugs 22. The 20 mg / day dose administered to patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, operated or unopered, was effective both in therapy and in the prevention of GM by bicalutamide 23 – 24. At this same dose, anastrozole 25 – 26 and radiotherapy of the mammary region 27 – 28 were also more effective. Treatment with Tam was poorly effective at 20 mg weekly doses after pretreatment with 20 mg / day 29. One study compared the preventive administration of 10 mg of Tam for one year vs . therapeutic administration of 20 mg with better results on symptoms in previously treated patients. Treatment with 10 or 20 mg had no significant effect on the course of prostate disease 30. Overall, despite the concerns 31 related to the overall quality of the studies very modest (lack of data from randomized and controlled studies, low number of samples studied) the efficacy of therapy with Tam seems to result from all studies. Several reviews support its use in all types of GM for a period of 3 – 6 months 32 – 34. Given the mechanism of action, it is still important to adopt a position of caution in cases of patients still in the growth phase because the drug could affect the maturation of long bones.

For none of the treatments described there is an indication for gynecomastia, which therefore represents an “off – label” prescription condition to be managed with the procedures required by Legislative Decree 17 February 1998, n. 23, with prescription in band C, except in cases documented and presented to individual local commissions (where existing) that may determine the gratuity of the drug.

Tamoxifen for breast cancer (SOLTAMOX)

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Take one 20 mg tablet a day.

You can take tamoxifen before or after meals.

The most common unwanted side effects are hot flashes, and vaginal discharge and itching. There are also some less common but more serious side effects – your doctor of any unusual vaginal bleeding, leg pains or shortness of breath and any allergic type reaction.

About tamoxifen

Treatment options for breast cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormone therapy. A combination of two or more of these treatments is often used. Tamoxifen is a hormonal treatment.

Some types of breast cancer need the female hormone estrogen to grow. The cells of these tumors have receptors on their surface that the estrogens can attach and are called ‘hormone receptor positive’ cancers. Tamoxifen works by blocking estrogen receptors and this prevents them from reaching cancer cells, preventing them from growing.

Before taking tamoxifen

Some medications are not suitable for people with certain conditions, and sometimes a drug can only be used if extra care is taken. For these reasons, before taking tamoxifen it is important that the doctor or pharmacist knows:


  • If you have irregular or unusual menstrual periods.
  • If you have ever had a stroke, a blood clot in the lungs, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).
  • If you are pregnant or nursing.
  • If you have porphyria (this is a rare hereditary blood disorder).
  • If you are taking any other medicines. This includes any medications you are currently taking, which are available for purchase without a prescription, such as herbal and complementary medicines. It is also very important that you tell your doctor if you are taking a hormonal contraceptive (‘the pill’ or ‘mini-pill’) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
  • If you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to a drug.

How to take tamoxifen


  • Before starting this therapy, read the manufacturer’s information leaflet printed inside the package. The brochure will give you more information about tamoxifen and the full list of side effects that may occur from taking it.
  • Take one 20 mg tablet of tamoxifen every day, exactly as your doctor tells you to. Your dose will also be on the packaging label to remember.
  • You can take tamoxifen at any time of day to find easier to remember, but try to take your doses at the same time each day. This will help you avoid losing any doses. Tamoxifen can be taken before, during or after meals.
  • If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If you do not remember until the next day, skip the dose. Do not take two doses together to make up for the missed dose.

Getting the most out of your treatment


  • Try to keep your regular appointments with your doctor or clinic. This is so the doctor can monitor your progress. A blood test may be necessary from time to time.
  • If you are having surgery, tell the person performing the treatment that you are taking tamoxifen. This is because it may be necessary to stop taking tamoxifen for a while before the operation.
  • You should not get pregnant while on tamoxifen. Make sure you have discussed with your doctor what kind of contraception are suitable for you and your partner, if this is important to you.
  • If you buy any medicine, consult a pharmacist who is suitable to take with other medicines.

Can tamoxifen cause problems?

Along with their useful effects, most drugs can cause unwanted side effects although not everyone experiences them. These usually improve as your body regulates for new medicine, but talk to your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following side effects continue or become bothersome.

Side effects of tamoxifen citrate

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Tamoxifen is an antineoplastic or cancer-fighting drug. Tamoxifen is also classified as an anti-estrogen drug because it blocks estradiol at estrogen receptors. For this reason, tamoxifen is effective for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive tumors. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Tamoxifen treats metastatic breast cancer in women and men and is a treatment option for premenopausal women instead of removing, or irradiating the ovaries.

General undesirable effects

The NIH reports that adverse reactions to tamoxifen are rare and generally mild and do not result in discontinuation of treatment. Negative effects of tamoxifen affecting the body as a whole and occurring greater than 1 percent of the population tested include weight gain, photosensitivity, alopecia (hair loss), flushing, increased bone pain, shortness of breath, levels high serum calcium and occasional flare-ups disease. During the initiation of treatment, breast tumors can enlarge, become the tender and localized due to redness and swelling.

Side effects of the central nervous system

Headaches, lightheadedness, dizziness, mental confusion, feeling drowsy and depression can occur while taking tamoxifen.

Cardiovascular side effects

Patients taking tamoxifen have a potential risk of thrombosis (blood clots) in any part of the body, including the lung or the brain.

Gastrointestinal side effects

Tamoxifen can cause nausea and vomiting, an unpleasant taste in the mouth and decreased appetite.

Hematologic side effects

Tamoxifen may decrease the production of white blood cells and induce thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) making a patient who take tamoxifen more prone to bleeding and infection.

Dermatological side effects

Patients taking tamoxifen may experience dry skin or rash.

Side effects of special senses

Tamoxifen can cause retinopathy, blurred vision and decreased visual acuity. These symptoms should be reported to the attending physician.

Urogenital side effects

Tamoxifen will cause changes in the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women, as well as cause milk production and leaking from the breast, vaginal discharge and bleeding, vaginal dryness and risk of uterine malignancy.


NIH advises patients to seek immediate medical attention if they experience the following adverse reactions while taking tamoxifen, or after taking tamoxifen: new breast nodules, vaginal bleeding, changes in the menstrual cycle, changes in vaginal discharge, pelvic pain or pressure, swelling or tenderness in the calf, shortness of breath, sudden chest pain, coughing up blood or changes in vision.

Tamoxifen Citrate – Antiestrogenes

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What good is

Nolvadex is a drug based on the active substance Tamoxifen Citrate, belonging to the category of Antiestrogenes and specifically Antiestrogenes. It is marketed in Italy by the company AstraZeneca S.p.A. .

Nolvadex can be prescribed with Recipe RR – prescription medicines.

Nolvadex is used for the treatment and treatment of various diseases and diseases such as Breast cancer, prostate cancer.

Commercial information on the prescription



Special warnings and precautions for use

Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

The use of tamoxifen in patients undergoing treatment with dicumarolic anticoagulants can significantly increase anticoagulant activity; in this case a close monitoring of the coagulation indices is advisable.

Before taking “Nolvadex” together with other drugs such as Alikres , Aurantin , Bupropione Sandoz , Carbamazepine EG , Carbamazepine Teva , Clexiclor , Cymbalta , Daparox 33.1 mg / ml , Daparox , Diesan , Dintoina , Dintoinale , Dropaxin , Dulex , Duloxetine Alter , Duloxetine Aurobindo , Duloxetine Doc Generici , Duloxetine Eg , Duloxetine Krka , Duloxetine Mylan , Duloxetina Pensa , Duloxetine Sandoz GmbH , Duloxetine Tecnigen , Duloxetine Teva Italia , Duloxetina Zentiva , Electril , Eutimil , Ezequa , Fenitoin Hikma , Fluoxeren , Fluoxetine Accord , Fluoxetine Almus , < b> Foxoxetine Alter , Foxoxetine Angelini , Fluoxetine DOC Generici , Fluoxetine EG , Fluoxetine Eurogenerici , Fluoxetine Fidia , Fluoxetine Generics , Fluoxetine Germed , Fluoxetine Mylan Generics , Fluoxetine ratiopharm , Fluoxetine Sandoz GmbH , Fluoxetine Zentiva , Gamibetal Complex , < b> Gardenale , Luminal , Metinal Idantoina L , Metinal Idantoina , Mimpara , Mitomycin C , Mysimba , Mysoline , Paroxetina Actavis , Paroxetine Almus , Paroxetine Aurobindo , Paroxetine DOC Generici , Paroxetina EG , Paroxetine Germed Pharma , Paroxetine Hexal , Paroxetine Mylan Generics , Paroxetina Pensa , Paroxetine Pfizer , Paroxetine Ranbaxy Italia , Paroxetine ratiopharm , Prozac , Rifadin , Rifater , Rifinah , Rifocin , Rimstar , Serestill , Sereupin , Seroxat , Stiliden , Tretretol , Wellbutrin , Xeredien , Yentreve , Zyban , etc. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice to make sure it is safe and not harmful to your health.

Tamoxifen (Tamoxim / Nolvadex)

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Nolvadex – drug based on tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer in women. Its anti – estrogenic properties allow to act on the tumor, reducing it in terms of size and suspends development (some types of tumors develop right under the influence of estrogen, with a high content of these substances in the blood is an increase in glands mammary in men and women).

Tamoksimed – drug based on tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer in women. Its anti – estrogenic properties allow to act on the tumor, reducing it in terms of size and suspends development (some types of tumors develop right under the influence of estrogen, with a high content of these substances in the blood is an increase in glands mammary in men and women).

Although breast cancer – a woman’s disease, according to statistics, more than Tamoksimed popular among men. This can be explained by the fact that the tool is often used in the course of anabolic steroids. Sufficiently high dosages and duration of reception of preparations with high levels of androgens significantly increases the risk of feminilizatsii: accumulation of fat, high content of water in the body, gynecomastia and other side effects. Tamoximed, having anti-estrogenic effect, able to withstand the aromatization process, block the formation of bonds between receptors and estrogens.

Active chemical: tamoxifen citrate

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is a brand name for tamoxifen citrate, a non-steroid substance that exhibits anti-estrogenic properties. These properties are explained by the ability of the drug to compete with estrogen for a place in various tissues, such as the breast. In medicine, this effect is very useful in the treatment of patients with estrogen-induced tumors, for example with breast cancer.

Effects of Tamoxifen

Male bodybuilders find this drug very effective in fighting the effects of steroid aromatization and increasing the level of estrogen in the body, such as gynecomastia and the formation of fat deposits that form the female silhouette. These effects can occur both with an increase in the level of estrogen in the body, and with a decrease in the natural production of androgens. Nolvadex works by occupying estrogen receptors, as a result of the use of the drug, the unnecessary development of the tissues on the breast is significantly reduced and may cease altogether. The drug is not toxic and has no side effects. It adapts well to most anabolic cycles.

Side effects of the drug Tamoxifen

Regarding the use of tamoxifen in bodybuilding, I would like to draw immediate attention to the fact that it is prescribed only in combination with the use of anabolic drugs. Most of the steroid drugs in their composition contain a large number of so-called flavoring components. These components tend to cause an increase in the total number of estrogens in the patient’s blood. As a result, due to the prohibitive accumulation of estrogen, all types of feminization phenomena begin to appear in athletes. Often this manifests itself as:


  • Gynecomastia (increase in the size of the mammary glands in a man, unilateral or bilateral),
  • Excessive accumulation of liquids in the body,
      forced accumulation in the subcutaneous tissue of adipose tissues.

Of course, “all these side charms” to none of the bodybuilders at all. Tamoxifen, in turn, is precisely the tool that can prevent the emergence of all these very harmless and unpleasant phenomena. This effect is obtained due to the blocking of the estrogen receptor of human tissues by the drug, consequently the formation of the “receptor + estrogen” compounds is completely suppressed. In addition to all of the above, it is very positive that this pharmacological agent, in its interaction with the body, does not stop the aromatization.

How to take Tamoximed

More often, the drug is used at the end of the course of anabolic steroid intake. This is because the Tamoximed can significantly increase testosterone production from the body, whose level of the athlete after prolonged use of severely reduced steroids. How to take Tamoksimed – an individual question: a lot depends on the “power” of the course of anabolic steroids. For the prevention of the estrogenic effects of AAS, it is recommended to take 10 milligrams of the daily medication. The admission as tPost-course eradication begins approximately 3 – 4 weeks after the abolition of anabolic steroids.

The recommended Tamoximed course for athletes who are prone to dressing, or gynecomastia, while taking strong steroids (eg, Anadrol, or Testosterone Danabol) is 20 – 30 milligrams a day, until the elimination of side effects. The female dosages of the drug do not differ from the male ones. Tamoksimed by Pharma Balkan – oral medication, taking it during the meal should be: do not chew the tablets and drink plenty of fluids.

What is endometrial cancer?

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Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium. Endometrial cancer can also be called uterine cancer or uterine cancer.

Most uterine tumors are endometrial cancer. In another type of cancer, uterine sarcoma, malignancy begins in the muscles around the uterus. Endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma are usually treated differently.

Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States

It normally affects women over the age of 55.

Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer begins in the lining of the uterus and can spread from there.

Signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer include:


  • Vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods
  • Periods that are heavier than usual
  • Vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal women
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge, which may be watery or veins of blood.

Pain in the pelvic area or during sexual intercourse is less common.

With the progression of the disease, fatigue, nausea and pain in the legs, back and pelvic area may occur.

Some women also experience pain during urination, while others have difficulty emptying the bladder.

Other non-cancerous health problems have similar symptoms, such as fibroids, endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia or polyps in the lining of the uterus.

Risk factors for endometrial carcinoma

An important factor in endometrial cancer is increased exposure to high estrogen levels. Women who have never been pregnant, who begin menstruation before 12 years of age or who are undergoing a late menopause, after 55 years, are more at risk.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), particularly estrogen therapy, used by women after hysterectomy, also contributes. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is also a risk factor, as it increases estrogen levels.

Diabetes can contribute because when insulin levels rise, so does estrogen levels. The high level of long-term estrogen increases the likelihood of uterine cancer.

Other factors include:


  • Endometrial hyperplasia or excessive excessive growth or thickening of the lining of the uterus
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Use of Tamoxifen to prevent or treat breast cancer
  • Radiation therapy at the pelvis
  • A family history of uterine cancer
  • A previous diagnosis of ovarian or mammary carcinoma.

Acrylamide, a carcinogenic compound found in cooked food, particularly burned, rich in carbohydrates, has been linked to endometrial and ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women.

Diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma

A doctor will examine the patient’s medical and family history and medical history and perform a pelvic exam.

This involves inspection and perception of the cervix, uterus, vagina and lips to detect any lumps or changes in shape or size.

A transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVU) can determine the size and shape of the uterus, and the consistency and thickness of the endometrium, to rule out other conditions. A transducer is inserted into the vagina and the sound waves create a video image of the uterus on a monitor.

Blood tests can reveal cancerous cells.

A biopsy involves taking a sample of tissue or cells for examination under a microscope. This could be a hysteroscopy, in which a thin telescope is inserted into the vagina and uterus, or a suction biopsy, using a small and flexible tube to take the cells of the sample.

If cancer is detected, the “grade” of the tumor will be evaluated to see how quickly the cells are dividing and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow.

A higher grade tumor is more likely to grow rapidly and to metastasize, or spread to other parts of the body.

Tests to detect the spread of endometrial cancer include a pap test, lymph node biopsy and imaging tests, such as radiography, CT, PET or MRI.

Removing the uterus surgically or hysterectomy can reveal the scale of cancer in the uterus.

Staging endometrial cancer

The treatment will depend on dat the stage or how much cancer has spread.

The following steps can be used:


  • Stage 0: Cancer cells remain where they started, on the surface of the lining of the uterus.
       Stage I: the tumor has spread through the lining of the uterus to the endometrium and possibly to the myometrium.
  • Stage II: the tumor has spread to the cervix.
  • Stage III: the tumor has spread through the uterus to the nearby tissue, including the vagina or a lymph node.
  • Stage IV: the tumor has spread to the bladder or intestine and probably to other areas such as bones, liver or lungs.

When endometrial cancer spreads from the endometrium to other parts of the body and when a new tumor forms, for example, in the lung, that new cancer is not a lung cancer. It is known as metastatic endometrial carcinoma.

Treatment for endometrial cancer

Treatment depends on the patient’s age and general health, grade and stage of the tumor. A doctor will discuss the options and possible adverse effects with the patient.

Overall, options include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy.

Treatment for endometrial cancer is normally a hysterectomy or surgical removal of the uterus, along with the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Normally this is a 2-day hospital stay, but the resumption of normal activities can take between 4 and 8 weeks.

A premenopausal woman will no longer menstruate after surgery and will not be able to conceive. There may be symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses powerful rays to kill cancer cells and damages their DNA so they can not multiply.

In external beam radiation (EBRT), a beam is directed to the pelvis and other areas with cancer. There can be up to five sessions a week for several weeks. A session takes about 15 minutes.

Brachytherapy, or internal radiotherapy, uses small devices full of radiation, such as wires, a cylinder or small seeds. These are placed inside the vagina for a few minutes and then removed, after which the patient returns home. The therapy is repeated two or more times for several weeks. Removal of the device removes radiation from the body.

Adjuvant radiotherapy reduces the tumor before surgery, making it easier to remove.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is applied after surgery to remove any remaining tumor cells.

Side effects of radiation therapy include burned skin in the treated area, hair loss, fatigue, disease and diarrhea. After treatment, side effects usually disappear.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. In combination with radiation therapy, it can remove the remains of a tumor.

Chemotherapy can destroy cancer cells and prolong life.

In advanced cancer, chemotherapy can slow down progression and prolong life.

Both radiotherapy and chemotherapy can help alleviate symptoms in patients with advanced cancer.

For endometrial cancer, chemotherapy is usually given intravenously in treatment cycles and a rest period. The cycle is repeated several times, depending on the stage and objectives of the treatment.

Possible adverse effects include a reduction in healthy blood cells, leaving the patient prone to bruising, bleeding, anemia, fatigue and increased risk of infection. If these symptoms occur, the patient should consult a doctor.

Other effects include hair loss and gastrointestinal problems, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and poor appetite. There may be sores in the mouth and lips.

These problems typically disappear at the end of treatment.

Less common effects include swollen legs and feet, joint pain, balance problems, hearing difficulties, rashes and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy can help patients with advanced endometrial cancer.

Women with very early stage cancer and low-grade tumors who wish to become pregnant can opt for hormone therapy rather than surgery.

This is not a standard treatment and requires careful monitoring. If there is a completeat remission of cancer after 6 months of hormone therapy, they will be encouraged to conceive and give birth, and then to undergo postpartum surgery.

Hormone therapy for endometrial cancer includes the administration of progestogens to help reduce the tumor and control symptoms and reduce estrogen levels, making tumor cell growth more difficult.

Side effects include weight gain, slight muscle cramps and mild nausea.

Prognosis for endometrial cancer

The 5-year survival rate for endometrial cancer is about 81.7%, according to the American Cancer Society, and 95.4% or higher for those diagnosed at an early stage.

The National Cancer Institute recommends avoiding smoking, exercising and following a healthy diet to reduce the risk.

NOLVADEX ® – Tamoxifen by MyPersonalTrainer Editorial

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NOLVADEX ® is a drug based on Tamoxifen citrate

THERAPEUTIC GROUP: Antiestrogens – hormonal antagonists and related substances

Indications NOLVADEX ® – Tamoxifen

NOLVADEX ® is a selective anti-estrogenic drug used in the treatment of breast cancer and recently re-evaluated for the short-term treatment of anovulatory female infertility.

Mechanism of action NOLVADEX ® – Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen, the active ingredient of NOLVADEX ® is a derivative of triphenylethylene, also a precursor of the most used clomiphene citrate, characterized by an important selective pharmacological activity, which makes it one of the most used drugs in the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast carcinoma.
The aforementioned active principle, in fact, once taken orally and absorbed at the intestinal level, by binding to the plasma albumin, reaches the various tissues competing with estrogens for binding to the estrogenic receptor.
In this way tamoxifen can bind the overexpressed estrogen receptors in breast cancer, thus preventing estrogen from exerting its trophic and proliferative effect on the neoplastic cells of estrogen dependent carcinoma of the breast.
Recent evidence has shown that tamoxifen can reduce blood levels of total cholesterol, especially LDL, while preserving bone mineral density, thus protecting against cardiovascular and osteoporotic diseases.
The complex biological activity of this drug is still the subject of numerous studies, whose intent is to better characterize its molecular mechanism of action.

Studies carried out and clinical efficacy


Hum Reprod Sci. 2011 May; 4 (2): 76 – 9.

Tamoxifen: An alternative to clomiphene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Dhaliwal LK, Suri V, Gupta KR, Sahdev S.

Study demonstrating how tamoxifen can be effective at a dose of 40 mg per day in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and resistant to clomiphene citrate.


Clin Med Res. 2011 Nov; 9 (3 – 4): 150.

C – b2 – 02: epidemiology of tamoxifen and thromboembolism.

Onitilo A, Engel J, Berg R.

Epidemiological work demonstrating how the use of tamoxifen may correlate with the increased incidence of thromboembolic episodes. These episodes were observed in 5% of women under 45 years of age, 7% between 45-54 years, 14% between 55-64 years, 19% between 65-74 years, 27% in patients older than 74 years.


J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Nov 3.

Antifibrotic Effect of Tamoxifen in a Model of Progressive Renal Disease.

Dellê H, Rocha JR, Cavaglieri RC, Vieira JM Jr, Malheiros DM, Noronha IL.

Experimental study demonstrating how tamoxifen can inhibit renal fibrosis in models of nephrosclerosis, probably modulating the secretion of pro-fibrotic factors such as TGF beta.

Method of use and dosage

Tablets coated with 10 – 20 mg tamoxifen citrate film:
the dosage, usually between 20 and 40 mg daily, taken in one or two administration, must necessarily be defined by your doctor, who must supervise the whole therapeutic process and the effectiveness of the treatment.

NOLVADEX ® warnings – Tamoxifen

In order for NOLVADEX ® therapy to express maximum therapeutic efficacy without compromising the patient’s state of health, with potentially dangerous side effects, it should be preceded by a careful medical examination to assess the appropriateness of prescription and the absence of conditions incompatible with tamoxifen intake.
In this regard it is important that the doctor informs the patient of the potential side effects of the therapy and of the main signs with which they occur, in order to be recognized promptly.
Furthermore, medical supervision becomes fundamental both to ascertain the patient’s state of health and the efficacy of tamoxifen therapy.
NOLVADEX ® contains lactose and is therefore contraindicated in patients with galactose intolerance, enzyme lactase deficiency or glucose – galactose malabsorption.
The appearance of side effects on the visual apparatus, fogging and opacification, could make driving of cars or the use of machinery dangerous.

Although there are conflicting data in the literature concerning the safety profile of tamoxifen when taken during pregnancy, the numerous experimental data showing effects on the fetus similar to those induced by estrogens or clomiphene allow to extend the contraindications also to tamoxifen.
These contraindications also apply to the subsequent breastfeeding phase.


The hepatic metabolism to which tamoxifen is subjected exposes the patient to clinically relevant pharmacological interactions.
In fact the efficacy of the treatment and the incidence of its side effects, could be significantly changed by the simultaneous intake of modulators of CYP3A4, enzyme responsible for the metabolism of tamoxifen.
Furthermore, the concomitant use of dicumarinic anticoagulants could be accentuated by tamoxifen, thus requiring periodic supervision of coagulation indices.
Statistically, the incidence of thromboembolic episodes was higher in patients receiving tamoxifen and cytotoxic drugs.

Contraindications NOLVADEX ® – Tamoxifen

The use of NOLVADEX ® is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the active substance or to one of its excipients, pregnancy and lactation, as preventive therapy of breast cancer, or in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or with anticoagulant therapy in act.

Undesirable effects – Side effects

Long-term therapy, necessary for the treatment of breast cancer, exposes the patient to numerous side effects related to tamoxifen intake.
More precisely, hot flashes, vaginal blood loss, skin rash, dermatitis, hydro-saline retention, dizziness, visual disturbances, lower limb cramps, volumetric increase of ovarian cysts, hepatic steatosis and hepatic failure represent the most adverse reactions frequently observed during therapy with NOLVADEX ®.
However, the most worrying ones, taking on particular importance from the clinical point of view, are linked to the greater incidence of thromboembolic embolic events and malignant diseases, mainly concentrated in the uterine and endometrial sites.

NOLVADEX ® can only be sold under medical prescription.
The use of NOLVADEX ® outside of the prescription before and during a sports competition is prohibited by constituting doping practice

Information on NOLVADEX ® – Tamoxifen published on this page may be out of date or incomplete. For a correct use of this information, consult the Disclaimer page and useful information.

Drugs to Treat MyPersonalTrainer Gynecomastia

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“Gynecomastia” is defined as an abnormal development of the mammary tissue in the male, the result of an alteration in the synthesis of estrogen hormones and testosterone; in general, gynecomastia occurs in the child (pubertal variant) and in the elderly. Although it should not be considered a serious pathology, gynecomastia can cause serious psychological disorders to the subject, who feels different from others, and embarrassed.

In most cases, the cause of gynecomastia resides in hormonal abnormalities: the decrease in serum testosterone levels and the increase in estrogen can increase the volume of one or both breasts. Beyond hormonal factors, gynecomastia can also be heavily influenced by the administration of certain drugs: anabolic, anti-AIDS drugs, anti-androgens, anxiolytics (eg Diazepam), antibiotics, antiulcers, chemotherapeutics and digoxin.

Gynecomastia manifests with a clear swelling of the breasts, associated with pain and secretion of milky substances from one or both nipples. To the touch, the anomalous breast is rather flaccid and obviously swollen.


  • N.B. False gynecomastia occurs when the increase in breast volume depends exclusively on a localized lipid accumulation, in the absence of hormonal alteration or the administration of certain pharmacological specialties.

Information on Gynecomastia – Gynecomastia Drugs is not intended to replace the direct relationship between health professional and patient. Always consult your doctor and / or specialist before taking Gynecomastia – Gynecomastia Drugs.

Numerous cases of gynecomastia regress on their own, without the need to intervene with drugs or surgical treatments; however, if the condition is generated by a specific underlying cause – such as hypogonadism, malnutrition or cirrhosis – it is recommended to promptly intervene on the cause of origin. In the event that the gynecomastia is due to the administration of medicinal specialties, it will be the duty of the doctor to intervene by modifying the treatment with a similar pharmacological substitute.
Normally, pubertal gynecomastia that manifests itself without any obvious cause is not treated with drugs: in fact, the boy is subjected to periodic clinical checks, very useful to monitor the progression or regression of the disease. It is good to remember, in fact, that gynecomastia independent of pathologies or drugs tends to autorisolversi within a few months or a few years (max 2) from its debut.
Pharmacological or surgical treatment is necessary both when the condition does not regress over time (within two years of its onset), or if gynecomastia causes excessive pain or embarrassment.
Among the most used surgical treatments, we remind:

Gynecomastia regression can only occur at puberty: adult men and older adults who experience this disorder will have to undergo pharmacological or surgical intervention to regress the condition.

Below are the classes of drugs most used in gynecomastia therapy, and some examples of pharmacological specialties; it is up to the doctor to choose the active ingredient and dosage most suitable for the patient, based on the severity of the disease, the health status of the patient and his response to treatment:

The drugs used for the treatment of gynecomastia not dependent on secondary pathologies and not spontaneously reversible, are currently few: in any case, it seems that a treatment with tamoxifen and raloxifene – chemotherapeutic drugs with anti-estrogenic activity used for the treatment of Breast cancer – may, in some ways, also alleviate the symptoms of gynecomastia. Although other drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration , their therapeutic effect does not appear to be particularly beneficial for reversing the disease. Sometimes anastrozole is also used. Let’s analyze them in more detail:

       Tamoxifen (eg Nolvadex): the drug performs its therapeutic action by interacting with the estrogen receptor: briefly remember that serum testosterone levels in patients with gynecomastia are low, to the advantage of those of estrogen. Precisely to prevent the link between the receptor and estrogen, this drug is used in therapy for the treatment of gynecomastia (the active ingredient, by binding with the estrogen receptor, prevents the latter from carrying out its activity). The drug can be found in 10 or 20 mg tablets; the dosage and duration of treatment devonor be established by the doctor.

  • Raloxifene (eg Evista): the drug can be used for the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia, where the condition persists for over 2 years. Protect therapy with this drug for 3 to 9 months, depending on the severity of the condition. It is a drug belonging to the class of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM); this drug seems to exert a better therapeutic effect to alleviate the signs and symptoms that distinguish gynecomastia. For the dosage: consult the doctor (a drug generally found in 60 mg tablets).
  • Anastrozole (eg Arimidex): it is an aromatase inhibitor, an enzyme involved in the conversion of testosterone (male sex hormone par excellence) into estradiol (the most important human estrogen ever). Starting from this assumption, the drug is also used to treat disorders such as gynecomastia, precisely because it prevents the side effects associated with estrogen superproduction. For the dosage: consult the doctor.

The correction of eating habits is essential when gynecomastia depends on an accumulation of lipids in the breast tissue: localized fat and muscle relaxation are, in this case, the predisposing elements; therefore it is recommended to follow a low-calorie diet, consume a lot of fiber, limit the consumption of meat and practice constant exercise, especially aimed at muscle toning.