What is endometrial cancer, what are the symptoms, life expectancy and treatments?
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The endometrial cancer is a disease that leads to the emergence of tumor cells within endometrial tissues. This is precisely the distinction with the tumor that goes to hit the muscular component of the uterus, which is called uterine sarcoma. Since the causes of the disease are not known, there are several risk factors that have been recognized. Among the other most important risk factors we find the first menstruation that occurs at a very young age (we talk about premature menarche), menopause during old age (also called late menopause), diabetes, obesity and treatment with the tamoxifen drug in women who are affected by a breast cancer. The danger that a tumor of the endometrium may arise seems to increase in all those women who have to follow a therapy based only on estrogen hormones, which can condition and promote the development of certain tumors. However, when estrogen administration involves association with other progestogens, this risk does not seem to increase even further.
What are the symptoms of endometrial cancer
With this tumor the diagnosis is always particularly complicated, since the symptoms arise rather frequently in a late manner. Among the most widespread symptoms we find the vaginal discharge of blood (which are called metrorrhagia) that may be of different types (such as pink, deep red and bright red). In particular, it is necessary to try to deepen the question in the event that such losses begin to arise after the menopause, since it is precisely the perfect age in which the tumor develops. Among the various symptoms we also find vaginal discharge from the typically whitish coloring (it is called leucorrhoea), in some cases resulting in a bad smell. Pain, in most cases, arises in a delayed way, when the neoplasm attacks the organs inside the abdomen or in the pelvis. During the early phase, in some cases, patients may feel a slight pain due to the distension of the uterus that is caused by the spread of the tumor vegetations, as well as by the contractions of the uterus that this distension is able to reactivate. p>
Endometrium in menopause
Regarding endometrial cancer, it should be noted that age is the most important risk factor for endometrial cancer. In fact, it is a disease that is diagnosed very rarely in people who are less than 50 years old. Rather frequently, in the course of the menopause, the gynecologist or the doctor may suggest performing the endometrial test. With this particular test, a real take-out of cells in the uterus is carried out, in such a way as to be able to identify potentially dangerous situations (such as hyperplasias) or, in the case, also of tumors found at the stage. initial. The cell collection is an examination that takes place without any type of anesthesia and, moreover, causes very little pain: in most cases, in fact, it is completed in the clinic in a few minutes. It is advised to carry out this examination when the patient suffers from continuous, but irregular bleeding, both during the menopause, but also during the climacteric, as well as during the substitution treatment. Among the other tests that can be useful for identifying ovarian cancer when it is in a particularly early stage we find undoubtedly transvaginal ultrasound. This is an examination that involves the insertion of a probe inside the vagina and it is definitely important to keep under control the genital apparatus around and, specifically, the endometrium and the ovaries. It can not be clearly considered a painful examination, but at the same time allows to evaluate several important aspects, such as measuring the thickness of the endometrium which, during the menopause, is usually very thin, since it is around 5 millimeters.
Endometrial adenocarcinoma g2
Endometrial cancer is also often referred to as adenocarcinoma because it comes from a glandular part. At every modo, there are varying degrees of tumor severity, based on the cells that form the tumor mass. The degree of differentiation is fundamental in order to arrive at a correct prognosis, in such a way as to be able to understand what is the most appropriate treatment. Based on the most commonly used classification, which takes the name of FIGO, the cancer degrees of the endometrium are essentially three, namely G1, G2 and G3. As can be easily understood, G1 grade tumors have the best prognosis. Grade G1 presents an adenocarcinoma that consists of part of glands that have many features in common with the normal glands, but are extremely complex. This degree of cancer must be different from the endometrial polyps, as well as from the chronic inflammation processes affecting the endometrium, but also the endometrial hyperplasia. In the degree that is defined G2 we find a less important difference between the tumor and healthy glands and, for this reason, they are defined atypical. In the degree that is defined G3, the glandular tumor masses are particularly strange and, in some cases, they can not even be defined as such. In these cases, both the hemorrhages and the areas of death of the cells occur more frequently: the tumor is called undifferentiated adenocarcinoma.
What are the chances of survival of endometrial cancer
Five-year survival for endometrial cancer patients is strongly conditioned by several factors: among others we must underline the involvement of the lymph nodes, the degree that characterizes the tumor and its severity, the achievement or absence of the myometrium , the more or less aggressive type of the tumor mass, the positivity or not of the peritoneal liquid to malignant cells, the size of the cancer and the patient’s age. Generally, five-year survival of patients undergoing surgery is different based on the stage where the tumor is. The cancer survival rate of the five-year endometrium of those at the zero stage is 100%, those at the first stage are between 72 and 98%. Patients who are at the second stage have a probability of survival at five years equal to 30 – 75%, while at the third stage they fall to 15 – 60%, to fall down to 3 – 10% when the cancer has reached the terminal stage , or the fourth.